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Sunday, June 16, 2013

Cosmetics


Cosmetics (colloquially known as makeup or make-up) are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.[1]
In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics,[2] defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition also includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.[3]

Makeup types

Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, hand sanitizer, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to coloring products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
Primer, come in various formulas to suit individual skin conditions. Most are meant to reduce the appearance of pore size, prolong the wear of makeup, and allow for a smoother application of makeup, and are applied before foundation.
Lipgloss, is a sheer, liquid form of lipstick.
    Lipstick, lip gloss, lip liner, lip plumper, lip balm, lip conditioner, lip primer, and lip boosters.[2] Lip stains have a water or gel base and may contain alcohol to help the product stay on the lips. The idea behind lip stains is to temporarily saturate the lips with a dye, rather than to cover them with a colored wax. Usually designed to be waterproof, the product may come with an applicator brush or be applied with a finger.
      Concealer, makeup used to cover any imperfections of the skin. Concealer is often used for any extra coverage needed to cover blemishes or other marks. Concealer is often thicker and more solid than foundation, and provides longer lasting, more detailed coverage. Some formulations are meant only for the eye or only for the face.
        Foundation, is used to smooth out the face and cover spots or uneven skin coloration. Usually a liquid, cream, or powder, as well as most recently a light and fluffy mousse, foundation also provides excellent coverage.[2] Foundation primer can be applied before or after foundation to obtain a smoother finish. Some primers come in powder or liquid form to be applied before foundation as a base, while other primers come as a spray to be applied after the foundation to help the make-up last longer.
          Face powder is used to set the foundation, giving it a matte finish, and also to conceal small flaws or blemishes.
            Rouge, blush or blusher is cheek coloring used to bring out the color in the cheeks and make the cheekbones appear more defined. Rouge comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms.[2]
              Contour powder/creams are used to define the face. They can be used to give the illusion of a slimmer face or to modify a person’s face shape in other desired ways. Usually a few shades darker than one's own skin tone and matte in finish, contour products create the illusion of depth. A darker toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of contour products for a more natural look.
                Highlight, used to draw attention to the high points of the face as well as to add glow to the face, comes in liquid, cream, and powder forms. It often contains shimmer, but sometimes does not. A lighter toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of highlight to create a more natural look.
                  Bronzer is used to give skin a bit of color by adding a golden or bronze glow.[2] It comes in either matte, semi matte/satin, or shimmer finishes.
                    Mascara is used to darken, lengthen, and thicken the eyelashes. It is available in natural colors such as brown and black, but also comes in bolder colors such as blue, pink, or purple. There are many different formulas, including waterproof versions for those prone to allergies or sudden tears. It is often used after an eyelash curler and mascara primer.[2] Many mascaras now have certain components intended to help lashes to grow longer and thicker.

                        Cosmetics can be also described by the physical composition of the product. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks.
                          Makeup remover is a product used to remove the makeup products applied on the skin. It is used to clean the skin before other procedures, like applying bedtime lotion.
                            Skin types

                                There are five basic skin types, including:
                                  1. Normal skin

                                      This type of skin has a fine, even and smooth surface due to its ideal balance between oil and moisture content and is therefore neither greasy nor dry. People who have normal skin have small, barely-visible pores. Thus, their skin usually appears clear and does not frequently develop spots and blemishes. This type of skin needs minimal and gentle treatment, but does still require maintenance.
                                        2. Dry skin

                                            Dry skin has a parched appearance and tends to flake easily. It is prone to wrinkles and lines due to its inability to retain moisture, as well as an inadequate production of sebum by sebaceous glands. Dry skin often has problems in cold weather, which dries it out even further. Constant protection in the form of a moisturizer by day and a moisture-rich cream by night is essential. It is important not to over-exfoliate even in cases of extreme flaking, as this only dries out the skin further; gentle exfoliants using sugar, rice bran or mild acids are the most suitable, although they should not be used more frequently than once per week to avoid causing irritation and dryness.
                                              3. Oily skin

                                                  As its name implies, this type of skin surface is slightly to moderately greasy, which is caused by the over secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the surface of the skin causes dirt and dust from the environment to adhere to it. Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads, whiteheads, spots and pimples. It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every day, especially in hot or humid weather. Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based and non-comedogenic moisturizer is required in addition. Exfoliation is also necessary, but over-exfoliation can cause irritation and increase in oil production; exfoliants that contain fruit acids are particularly helpful, and fine-grained exfoliants may help to clear blocked pores, discouraging breakouts and improving the skin's appearance.
                                                    4. Combination skin

                                                        This is the most common type of skin. As the name suggests, it is a combination of both oily and dry or normal skin where certain areas of the face are oily and the others dry. The oily parts are usually found on a central panel, called the T–Zone, consisting of the forehead, nose and chin. The dry areas usually consist of the cheeks and the areas around the eyes and mouth. In such cases, each part of the face should be treated according to its skin type. There are also skin care products made especially for those who have combination skin; these contain ingredients that cater to both skin types.
                                                          5. Sensitive skin

                                                              Sensitive skin has a tendency to react to many potential triggers with irritation, redness, stinging or burning, flaking, lumpiness and rashes. The most common causes of irritation are chemical dyes and fragrances, soaps, some flower and spice oils, shaving creams, tanning lotions or spray tans, changes in temperature, excessive cleansing or exfoliating, waxing, threading, shaving and bleaching. People with sensitive skin should try to avoid products with unnecessary fragrances or dyes, and generally avoid using products that cause irritation. Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can be oily, normal or combination as well.
                                                                General skin care routines

                                                                    Cleansing

                                                                        Cleansing is the first essential step to any daily skin care routine. Cleansers are generally applied to wet skin over the face and sometimes also the neck, avoiding the eyes and lips.
                                                                          Cleansing the face once per day is typically adequate for normal or dry skins. However, a mild cleanser should also be used at night if makeup has been worn to remove any excess dirt or oil. Oily skins should be cleansed more frequently, at least twice per day. Water-based, gentle cleansers are ideal for all skin types, though particularly acne-prone skin may require medicated cleansers containing benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid to discourage acne. While soap can be used as a cleanser, it should be avoided in cases of dry and sensitive skins; many alternatives are available. Oil-based cleansers have become particularly popular with oily skin, as they are very gentle and do not over-dry the skin, but still effectively remove dirt and makeup. It is important to cleanse before applying makeup, regardless of skin type, as this helps to create a clean surface for makeup application. Many cleansers are also suitable for use as a makeup remover, but a proper makeup remover is preferable, particularly for the removal of eye makeup.
                                                                            Masks

                                                                                Face masks are treatments applied to the skin for a period of time, then removed. Typically, they are applied to a dry, cleansed face, avoiding the eyes and lips.
                                                                                  There are many kinds of face masks available, which typically fall into one or more of the following categories:
                                                                                    Clay-based masks use kaolin clay or fuller's earth to transport essential oils and chemicals to the skin, and are typically left on until completely dry. As the clay dries, it absorbs excess oil and dirt from the surface of the skin and may help to clear blocked pores or draw comedones to the surface. Because of its drying actions, clay-based masks should only be used on oily skins.
                                                                                      Peel masks are typically gel-like in consistency, and contain various acids or exfoliating agents to help exfoliate the skin, along with other ingredients to hydrate, discourage wrinkles, or treat uneven skin tone. They are also left on to dry, and then gently peeled off. They should be avoided by people with dry skin, as they also tend to be very drying.
                                                                                        Sheet masks are a relatively new product that is becoming extremely popular in Asia. Sheet masks consist of a thin cotton or fiber sheet with holes cut out for the eyes and lips and cut to fit the contours of the face, onto which serums and skin treatments are brushed in a thin layer; the sheets may also be soaked in the treatment. Masks are available to suit almost all skin types and skin complaints. Sheet masks are quicker, less messy, and require no specialized knowledge or equipment for their use compared to other types of face masks, but they may be difficult to find and purchase outside of Asia.
                                                                                          Exfoliants

                                                                                              Exfoliants are products that help slough off dry, dead skin to improve its appearance. This is achieved either by using acids or other chemicals to loosen old skin cells, or abrasive substances to physically scrub them off. Exfoliation can even out patches of rough skin, improve circulation to the skin, clear blocked pores to discourage acne and improve the appearance and healing of scars. Exfoliants should be applied to wet, cleansed skin, avoiding the eye area; abrasive exfoliants or scrubs should then be rubbed into the skin in a circular motion for at least 30 seconds. Dry skin should only be exfoliated in spots with severe flaking, and no more than once per week; oily skins may be able to tolerate twice weekly exfoliation. Signs of over-exfoliation include sore, dry and irritated or reddened skin and excessive dryness or oiliness.
                                                                                                Chemical exfoliants may include citric acid (from citrus fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar), malic acid (from various fruits), glycolic acid, lactic acid or salicylic acid. They may be liquids or gels, and may or may not contain an abrasive to remove old skin cells afterwards. Abrasive exfoliants include gels, creams or lotions, as well as physical objects. Loofahs, microfibre cloths, natural sponges or brushes may be used to exfoliate skin, simply by rubbing them over the face in a circular motion. Gels, creams or lotions may contain an acid to encourage dead skin cells to loosen, and an abrasive such as beads, sea salt, sugar, ground nut shells, rice bran or ground apricot kernels to scrub the dead cells off the skin. Salt and sugar scrubs tend to be the harshest, while scrubs containing beads or rice bran are typically very gentle.
                                                                                                   SOURCE: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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